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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Regional Economy in Theory and Practice, eds. Theoretical aspects of regional economy Ryszard Brol: The concept of regional strategy of smart specialization Resilience, competitiveness and sustainable development of the region — similarities and differences Regional innovation strategy implementation — system model covering the results of the analysis of the Polish experiences Creativity in the context of regional development — selected issues Regional peculiarities of the global art market The impact of transport on regional development Diversified spatial neighbourhood — a metropolis and a national park Polish regions against the background of European regional space with regard to smart growth — aggregate perspective Does smart growth enhance economic cohesion?

An analysis for the EU regions of new and old accession countries Typology of European regions vs. Gross domestic expenditures on research and development in GDP of European Union countries — changes in trends Educational engagement of the elderly — the experiences of selected Baltic Sea Region countries The classification of EU and Eastern Partnership countries regarding economic development level — a dynamic approach The potential of the population in the Baltic Sea Region in the years — Modernization of regional structural policy mechanisms in Ukraine in the process of its EU integration Barriers to innovation activities in industrial enterprises by Polish regions in — and — Special economic zones as stimuli to regional development during a crisis Sustainable transport development prerequisites in selected Polish regions Interregional cooperation as the stimulation of proinnovation actions — the casual analysis Cross-border cooperation of Lower Silesia and Saxony — current results and prospects Managing the production process of a group of agricultural farms of the Pomorze and Mazury Region and their economic development Experiences of county employment agencies in the use of EU structural funds to promote employment.

Teoretyczne aspekty gospodarki regionalnej Ryszard Brol: Koncepcja regionalnej strategii inteligent- nej specjalizacji Regionalna specyfika globalnego rynku sztuki Specjalne Strefy Ekonomiczne jako stymulator rozwoju re- makroekonomis w dobie kryzysu The future, undoubtedly, holds significant changes which can exert an impact on the regional economy.

Macroeconomic environment features extensive changeability, which forces regions to adjust their development strategies to the increasingly competitive global market. The European Union specifies in the Europe development strategy ambitious goals and assumptions indicating opportunities for smart, sustainable and facilitating social cohesion growth.

These problems, constituting challenges for experts in the domain of regional economy, were widely discussed during the 20th Scientific Conference entitled: The conference, apart from valuable papers presentation sessions, constituted a forum for exchanging opinions by scientists and economic practice representatives. We had the pleasure and honour to host research workers from many national and foreign universities, as well as practitioners representing local authorities.

The conference subject matter covered a broad spectrum of theoretical and application issues referring to the local and regional economy, with particular emphasis on the diffusion of solutions applied in science for the benefit of local and regional development, problems of competitiveness and regional innovation, local government finance, spatial economy, structural transformations and territorial marketing.

The conference papers were published in six volumes. This publication presents research and reflections referring to numerous regional economy problems divided into three thematic areas: We would like to express our gratitude to the conference participants for their extensive input in the following publication. We do hope that it will be well received by its readers and allow them to become acquainted with current regional economy issues, dilemmas and research results, as well as encourage them to participate in subsequent editions of the conference.

The article defines innovation as well as the innovativeness of a region as a category of economics. The author has specified relations between regional development and innovativeness of the regional economy. He has also identified regional innovativeness stimulation instruments within the confines of regional policy created by the European Union and regional self-government units. Introduction The objective of the this paper is to transfer the category of innovation to the level of local and dkrypt territorial units.

In order to carry this out, it makroekojomia necessary to specify the concept of invention and innovation as economic categories, to discuss the relationship between regional development and regional economy innovation and also to identify innovation stimulating instruments within the framework of regional policy.


Innovation represents, in its core concept, an economic category. Schumpeter introduced the term of invention and innovation to the theory of economics [Schumpeter ], having defined invention as the application and dissemination of new solutions in practice, distinguished three subsequent stages comprising an innovation cycle: This definition differentiates an invention from an innovation, with the latter understood as the process of a new product, procedure or an operating pattern implementation and practical application — if they meet novelty qualities.

Innovation diffusion represents the stage which closes an innovation cycle within sectors of the economy and also the inter-sector and spatial diffusion by means of their adequate adaptation.

An innovator participates in this process, taking on the skryot of an inventor or an entity which is capable of absorbing innovation — innovation beneficiary.

In such a perspective, innovation should skdypt observed as a tool of entrepreneurship. It may appear as part of a project, product marketing technique, customer makroekonomja service, management methods or its organisation; therefore, while discussing innovation we do not refer to a technical category only, but also to economic, social and special ones. The suggested definition of innovation may constitute the background for an innovation cycle triad interpretation in the aspect of relations occurring between regional innovation and regional development.

Relations between regional innovation and regional development Relations between innovation and competition are analysed in the aspect of global- isation processes and economic integration, they require a territorial approach cov- ering global, national, regional and local determinants of an innovation triad, i. Innovation represents the greatest challenge of the 21st century. It defines the competitive position of not only economic entities and sectors, but also groups of integrating countries, particular states, regions, local territorial units communesas well as — formally undelimited — regional and local functional and spatial systems, e.

Hegg an approach is presented by M. Porter, according to whom the competitive advantage of particular territories is ac- complished through innovation oriented activities [Porter ].

In professional bsgg, different definitions of regional development are presented and prepared as the result of conducted research work, as well as the application of procedures referring to the regional economy.


These definitions beegg depending on the research objective — differ in the scope of the, so called, regional development fields as well as methods for identifying the major driving forces of regional development and also the explanation of their mechanism influence on particular regional development fields. The scope of such fields, and the criteria for development factors identification, depend on the context to which due research and application procedures refer.

Most frequently this context is defined by issues present within the scope of such problems as: It refers to both the ability to participate in this cycle by playing the role of an innovation creator makroekonimia inventor, and as an entity capable of innovation absorption — absorbent.

The change introduced by an inventor becomes an innovation if it meets certain important qualities determining that the changes made skrylt be referred to as innovation. In particular, innovation results from an alteration introduced purposefully and permanently — which either modifies or introduces new components to both the methods and effects of the creating entity functioning, as well as entities involved in the application of these innovations. Innovation — understood in this way — may appear e.

The concept of invention and innovation may be placed, similarly to the category of regional development, in a broad spectrum of transformations occurring in the spheres of economy, space and regional community.

In order to define relations between regional innovation and regional development, it is required skryph identify both endogenous and exogenous factors, which are responsible for creating and stimulating regional development and innovation in the spheres listed above, referred to as regional development fields.

Within the scope of each presented sphere it is possible to identify reasons, factors, s,rypt and effects presenting qualities common for both regional development and regional innovation.

Each regional development field applies characteristic for different scientific disciplines methods and tools useful in the identification and skryypt of the advancement of such changes in the course of innovation and regional development processes. The broad spectrum of phenomena and processes responsible for social, economic and spatial issues, which add up into the form of regional development category, make an impact on regional development resulting from diversified activities performed by various entities — companies, institutions, public authorities, regional residents — as well as mutual relations and interactions occurring between these entities.


On the one hand, the processes identified as regional development constitute the effect of microeconomic attitudes presented by businesses and investors operating in a market makroekpnomia, on the other hand, however, they result from purposeful, planned, strategic activities carried out by the entities responsible for regional and local policy.

Therefore, one may accept that regional progress related to innovation, and also regional development, represent complementary and mutually stimulating processes. At the same time, the higher level of regional entities capacity for creating and absorbing innovation represents the crucial factor influencing endogenous economic, social and spatial regional development potentials.

This makroekohomia also stimulates smrypt ability of such potential to take advantage of exogenous opportunities for regional development resulting from, among others, both globalization and European integration mamroekonomia.


Regional development is an example of an autonomous development model, i. Endogenous factors constitute the main driving forces responsible for development. This group makreokonomia of factors determining the development capacity of resources constituting the regional economy. It can be assumed that the regional economy is composed of the following types of capital understood as resources generating both quantitative and qualitative advantages: Among regional development factors responsible for stimulating the stream of benefits generated by regional natural capital the following, among others, may be listed: Eco-innovation can take the following forms: In the field of regional development covering production, infrastructural and financial potentials, the following factors are, among others, responsible for development: The key factor of development, in this case, is represented by the ability of regional economy entities to participate in an innovation cycle.

The direct effect of a such capacity takes the form of both the creation and absorption of skry;t, i. The level of economic entities innovation, as well as self-government entities equipped with regulatory powers referring to economic sphere, are decisive regarding the overall level of regional innovation. In times of globalization, innovation in the sphere of the economy represents the initial, causative stage of the regional economic development cycle triad which covers regional innovation — regional competitiveness — regional development.

Not every novelty can be perceived as an innovation. Meeting each of the rationality conditions listed above, with reference to product service innovation, results in the construction of a specific, for particular economic entities operating in regional economy, individual competitive potential. The sum of these potentials defines the regional competition level in an economic sphere.

Higher regional competition level is the key determinant of regional development. In the discussed case it is the innovation advantage of companies functioning in the regional economy structure which represents the driving force influencing the increase in regional competition and, consequently, also regional development. Human capital and social capital resources in a given region represent endogenous driving forces which create both regional and also local territorial unit innovation, as well as regional makroekoomia local development.

Regional human capital covers knowledge, skills, experience and intellectual creative capacity ingrained in particular units, which are of economic value for entities functioning in the regional economy.

In this case such economic value is represented by the ability of the regional community to innovate in the process makrorkonomia performing due tasks in diversified regional, endogenous conditions, as well as the skill of responding to innovative transformations in the regional macro-environment — for which the adequate diffusion carrier takes the form of e.

Knowledge is, by all means, the most important resource of the contemporary economy, since it is the product of human capital, while learning represents the crucial process, the effect of which is creating knowledge resulting in the higher value of human capital. The major quality of dynamically developing regions is the advantage of makroekonomi related to knowledge creation and human capital over those physical and natural.

Such transformations facilitate conducting research and high-tech application in the regional economy, as well as the establishment of strong internal economic, social and institutional cooperation relations, and therefore enhance the construction of an innovative environment skrjpt which a regional knowledge-based economy is offered the opportunity to thrive.