The life stages of Euphyllura olivina include an egg, five nymphal instars, and adults (both sexes). Olive psyllids are very small insects ranging. AGRICULTURAL COMMISSIONER/WEIGHTS AND MEASURES DEPARTMENT. Olive Psyllid (Euphyllura olivina). Distribution: Olive growing regions from. Adult olive psyllid, Euphyllura olivina. Olive. Olive Psyllid. Scientific Name: Euphyllura olivina. (Reviewed 3/14, updated 3/14). In this Guideline.
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The olive psyllid, Euphyllura olivina Costabelongs to the superfamily Psylloidea, which consists of six families. As its common name suggests, the olive psyllid Figure 1 is found within the family Psyllidae, which contains over genera Myers et al.
Psyllids are often referred to as jumping plantlice due to their quick jumping movements. Psyllids generally are monophagous feeding on one plant species or oligophagous feeding on plants within a single family Kabashima et al. However, the olive psyllid is polyphagous, but it only feeds on a few different plants see hosts section below.
Currently, the olive psyllid is not found in Florida, but it does have the potential to spread to euphyyllura locations via olive tree importation. The olive psyllid nymphs and adults produce a white, waxy secretion Figure 2which can cause premature flower drop during infestations. The waxy secretion completely covers the nymphs, most likely to hide them from predators or to prevent desiccation M.
Honeydew, also produced by nymphs and adults, can lead to sooty mold development on the surface of the host plant Johnson Adult olive psyllid, Euphyllura olivina Costa. Photograph by Marshall W. Secretions made ejphyllura Euphyllura olivina Costa on buds of an olive tree, Olea europaea L. The rate of mortality increases at temperatures above In California, psyllid populations decline after June due to the rise in temperature and populations do not recover until the following spring Zalom et al.
Typically, three generations of olive psyllids occur annually. The first generation feeds as nymphs beginning in March Alford The second generation begins feeding in May but becomes inactive going through aestivation once temperatures reach The aestivating olive psyllids hide ejphyllura cracks of the trunk of the host plant Zalom et al.
When temperatures become optimal again, usually in September, the olive psyllid nymphs return to an active state Alford The third generation of nymphs appears in September and October Zalom et al. Most native psyllids in California are not pests on olives, but introduced species, like the olive psyllid, typically become pests Kabashima et al. When nymphs and adults feed, they rupture plant cells and suck sap from the host plant, reducing levels of nutrients reaching certain parts of the host.
This only becomes a problem when olive psyllids are on inflorescences flower clusterswhich ultimately affects fruit production. Additionally the accumulation of waxy secretions from olive psyllids may reduce yield by causing premature flower drop Johnson et al. Both immature and adult olive psyllids excrete honeydew due to their inability to utilize all of the sugar and water in the plant sap ingested during feeding.
The accumulation of honeydew on foliage provides a substrate for development of sooty mold Figure 3which can potentially block sunlight and inhibit photosynthesis, or lead to premature aging of leaves that causes the leaves to drop Laemmlen The second generation causes the most economic damage to olive ejphyllura the immature olive psyllids are present during fruit production M.
Sooty mold on leaves of California laurel, Umbellularia californica. Female olive psyllids lay eggs on new shoots, leaves, and buds JohnsonZalom et al. Females can lay up to 1, eggs during their lifespan Johnson The eggs, which take one to two weeks to hatch Alfordare oval in shape, light yellow, and about 0.
Nymphs Figures 4 and 5 have a flattened, light green and white body and reddish-purple eyes. The olive psyllid goes through five nymphal stages that range from 0. An olive psyllid, Euphyllura olivina Costain its first instar on an olive leaf.
Olive psyllid, Euphyllura olivina Costanymphs on olive oljvina. Notice the waxy secretions covering the stem. Adult olive psyllids are dull green to gray in color with slightly black-mottled forewings.
The adults eupbyllura about 2. Adult males live between 24 and 44 days and females live between 26 and 50 days Meftah et al. In a study comparing Haouzia, Arbequina, Manzanilla, and Picholine Marocaine varieties and published in the O,ivina Journal of the International Olive Council, scientists discovered olive psyllids performed differently on different olive tree varieties. The success rate for olive psyllid development was highest for the Haouzia variety Euhpyllura et al.
Additionally, olive psyllids tend to select healthy hosts over unhealthy hosts M. An unhealthy host may be suffering from infestation by other pests or disease or may be in a location unsuitable for ideal growth. Host plants need to be monitored for olive psyllid populations to prevent infestations from establishing in new locations.
Olive psyllid – Euphyllura olivina (Costa, ) (Hemiptera:Psyllidae) an occasional pest in olive
Methods of monitoring include oivina sticky traps, agitating foliage to count fallen adults, and careful inspection of plant parts for eggs, nymphs, and adults Kabashima et al. Plant suckers shoots at the base of the okivina, if they have not been removed, should be inspected for olive psyllids M. It is best to monitor for the first generation of olive psyllids because the reduction of that generation can substantially reduce population levels olivima the second generation.
Treatment is advised if more than ten olive psyllids are found per inflorescence Zalom et al. In the United States, olive psyllid infestations are mostly found on ornamental olive trees Johnson Olive psyllid populations may be reduced by pruning.
Growers can prune infested areas, mainly suckers, along with center limbs to enhance air circulation that increases heat exposure to olive psyllids JohnsonKabashima et al. Insecticides, should they become necessary, are best used before olive psyllids begin producing their waxy secretions, eeuphyllura can provide protection from chemicals Zalom et al.
Because the secretions complicate control strategies, insecticides should target the first generation to avoid problematic second generation infestations Kabashima et al. There are nonresidual, contact insecticides that work against psyllids, such as neem oil, insecticidal soap, and horticultural oil Kabashima et al.
In the United States, a lady beetle called the mealybug destroyer Cryptolaemus montrouzierigreen lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris larvae, and some other species of lady beetles have occasionally been found around the olive psyllid Johnson et al. Researchers in California plan to evaluate whether the mealybug destroyer and the green lacewing will be able to control infestations Johnson Euphyllura olivina Costa Hemiptera: Management Euphyllhra to Top Host plants need to be monitored for olive psyllid populations to prevent infestations from establishing in new locations.
How to Manage Pests
Pests of fruit crops: A colour handbook, second edition. Observation of arthropod populations during outbreak of olive psyllid Euphyllura olivina in Tunisian olive groves.
Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 7: Appraising the threat of olive psyllid to California table olives. Final reportCalifornia Olive Committee. Olive psyllid, Euphyllura olivina Costa Hemiptera: Center for Invasive Species Research. University of California Euphyllurq. Integrated pest management for home gardeners and landscape professionals.
EPPO Global Database
University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources. Pest Notes Publication Pests in gardens and landscapes: Comparison of biological and demographic parameters of Euphyllura olivina Costa Homoptera, Psyllidae on four varieties of olive.
Official Journal of the International Olive Council University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Euphyllura olivina Costa, The World Psylloidea Database. UC pest management guidelines: