FosfoenolPiruvato. AH Universidad del mar. La enzima fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa. Fecha de consulta: 13/Noviembre/ Consultado. En este trabajo, investigamos la compleja regulación alostérica de la formas no fosforiladas de las isoenzimas fotosintéticas de la fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa. Acetil-CoA = acetil-coenzima A, MDH = malato deshidrogenasa, OAA = oxalacetato, PEP = fosfoenolpiruvato, PEPC = fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa piruvato y.

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Both types of isoenzymes also differ in their affinity for the substrate PEP, the activator Glc6P and the inhibitor malate.

These results indicate that the binding of malate and that of Glc6P to the amaranth enzyme are competitive. EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt was from Merck. Progressive multiple sequence alignment was carried out with the ClustalX package [38], using penalties based on secondary structure. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase extraction, purification and assay. Although the S 0.

FosfoenolPiruvato by Ariadne Heredia on Prezi

We display the results of the kinetics of saturation of the enzyme by its substrate PEP by considering tPEP as the variable substrate, instead of MgPEP, to facilitate the evaluation of the data in the physiological range of concentration of this metabolite.

The standard assay medium, final volume of 0. Protein was measured fosfenolpiruvato the method of Bradford [33], using bovine serum albumin as the standard. The activation by Glc6P may, however, play an important role increasing the flux of the C4 cycle at the onset of the light conditions, as mentioned above. The neutral amino acid binding site is not yet known because foosfoenolpiruvato structure with fosfoenolpiruvaho kind of ligand has been determined so far.

In the homology models of both enzymes, these parts are forming loops, as expected. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. When the concentration of inhibitor was varied at constant concentration of substrates, the experimental data were fitted to equation 3: Nishikido, T; Takanashi, H. Initial velocity carbboxilasa depending upon varied concentration of substrate were fitted to a Hill equation equation 1: In a broad range of P concentrations in nutrient solutions with P added to obtain shoot P ranging from deficient to near toxicitythe enzyme activity and citrate release were reduced to almost undetectable levels when shoot P carboxllasa increased to 0.

The kinetic differences between the allosteric activators acquire special relevance under conditions close to those prevailing under illumination, i.


The best fits were determined by the relative fit error, error of the constants and absence fosfoenokpiruvato significant correlation between the residuals, and other relevant variables like observed velocities, substrate concentration and data number. Malate concentrations ranged from 0 to 20 mM; Glc6P concentrations from 0 to 20 mM; and Gly concentrations from 0 to mM in the absence of malate, or from 0 to mM in the presence of this inhibitor.

Kinetic data were analyzed by nonlinear regression calculations using a commercial computing program formulated with the algorithm of Marquardt [35]. PEPCase activity of plants growing carbocilasa soil at five P treatments with Catboxilasa added to obtain shoot P ranging from deficient to adequate varied from 0. A rigid docking of glycine in this position not shown suggested the feasibility of binding of the activator to these residues, as we propose.

Photorespiration surely follows the buildup of malate during the day because of a decrease of the C4 cycle flux, a decrease due to both PEPC inhibition by the increased malate concentration and depletion of the available CO 2 by a very active Calvin cycle.

In this loop there are several amino acid residues that are conserved, or with conservative substitutions, within each group of monocots or dicots enzymes, but fosfoenoliruvato differ from one group to the other marked with an asterisk in Figure 3.


Gly has been found to be much more effective than Glc6P in this respect under conditions close to those existing in vivo during the light fosfoenolpiruvaro [14]. Each determination was performed at least in duplicate. In leaves of C4 plants the initial reaction in the assimilation pathway of atmospheric CO 2 is the essentially irreversible carboxylation of phospho eno lpyruvate PEP by phospho eno lpyruvate carboxylase orthophosphate: Activation by Gly helps in increasing the flux through the C4 pathway by effectively counteracting the inhibitory effects of malate, and, therefore, it helps in increasing the concentrations of CO2 in the bundle sheet cells thus overcoming photorespiration.

While Glc6P is unable to revert the inhibition caused by a physiological concentration of malate, Gly can produce an enzyme almost fsfoenolpiruvato active than that in the absence of the inhibitor [14]. The points in the figures are the experimentally determined values, whereas the curves are calculated from fits of these data catboxilasa the appropriate equation.

Term Bank – carboxilasa – Spanish English Dictionary

Barranca del Muerto No. The lack of activation by Gly of the dicot isoenzymes is mainly compensated by their higher affinity for the substrate PEP and their lower affinity for the inhibitor malate than those exhibited by the monocot isoenzymes. It has been propoosed that one of the functions of the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase PEPCase in the roots of white lupines consists in providing the carbon required to support the significant quantity of citrate that is excreted by P-starved plants.


No exogenous bicarbonate was added to the assay media, so that the concentration of bicarbonate was 0.

Six of these sequences are from monocot plants and the other seven from dicot plants. Sequence alignments and homology model building. These two limiting concentrations fosfoenolpirvato tPEP are close to those existing in the cytosol of the mesophyll cells during the dark and light periods, respectively [22, 23].

Also, because regulation of PEPC activity by metabolite effectors is mostly exerted at subsaturating concentrations of substrate [21], in fosfoenolpiruvatto studies with the allosteric effectors we used a fixed total PEP tPEP concentration of only 0. Activation by Glc6P could be important during the night or at the onset of illumination before the buildup of malate that takes place during the first hour after illumination [16].

The same solution was always obtained after repeated submissions of the data to this server. Plant material Plants of maize Zea mays L. Data analysis Kinetic data were analyzed by nonlinear regression calculations using a commercial computing program formulated with the algorithm of Marquardt [35].

The results of these kinetic experiments are shown in Figure 1 and summarized in dable 1. The results indicate that in vitro PEPCase activity does not significantly change with the range of shoot P from deficient to adequate, and suggest that the mechanism associated with citrate excretion might be impaired at P concentrations lower than those required to inhibit PEPCase activity.

The models were validated using ProCheck [40]. The reaction was started by addition of the enzyme preparation. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase assay and kinetic studies. One unit of PEPC is defined as the amount of enzyme needed to catalyze carboxiilasa formation of 1 umol of oxalacetate per min under our experimental conditions. Of particular interest to us is the loop analyzed in the sequence alignments of Figure 3. Received February 23, Plants of maize Zea mays L.