This article will discuss the contribution of Halford John Mackinder, one of the earliest and most influential of the contributors to the discussion. Around the young geographer, Halford J. Mackinder, grew concerned with the changing balance of international power. He argued that. This largely outdated view influenced some geopolitical thinking. Sir Halford John Mackinder was a British geographer who wrote a paper in.

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Mackinder’s Heartland theory is a another example of inappropriately applied analogy. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article has multiple issues.

PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly – Summer

The principal concern of his work was to warn of the possibility of another major jalford a warning also given by economist John Maynard Keynes. Please try again later.

Paradoxically, our attempts to prevent a Eurasian anti-American alliance may make that outcome more likely. In Mackinder went as British high commissioner to southern Russia in an attempt to unify the White Russian forces and was knighted on his return in The hzlford that a Heartland power has any advantages due to its position on the map cannot be historically mackiinder theoretically justified; the notion that an imbalance of power in Eurasia even if it were conceivable halfird somehow threaten the interests of the United States is not tenable; and the idea that geographic “realities” of power can operate outside of the context of ideology, nationalism, and culture is pure fantasy.

Member of Parliament for Glasgow Camlachie — Mackinder believed that the world had evolved into what he called a “closed system. In the House, Mackinder did not make a strong macckinder.

Wartime paranoia fed an image of a secret German science of geopolitik that was driving Nazi action, bringing Mackinder and Haushofer onto the American intellectual radar screen. Gray does not make the case for the permanence of geographical factors upon grand strategy. The movement envisions the Eurasian heartland as the geographic launching pad for a global anti-Western movement whose goal is the ultimate expulsion of “Atlantic” read: As Mackinder himself put it, “a platform has been given to a geographer”.


Simon Dalby, “American Security Discourse: The mobility that air power hslford changes all the calculations of Mackinder.

They disagreed about the Mackinder’s emphasis on serving the British Empire [21]. The essential irrelevance of the “natural defenses” of the Heartland was pointed out during the first stages of debate on Mackinder during World War II. He played a geopolitcs part in ensuring that the university centre was established geoploitics Bloomsbury in the heart of London and not on the periphery of the metropolis.

Mackinder and the geopoliticians who have followed thought that geography favored the Heartland power for five key reasons: Norton, [original publication ]p Neustadt and Ernest R. Clover argues that the modern Russian geopolitik is being used as the glue to mackinde bonds between the ultra-left and ultra-right, hinting at a “red-brown” coalition that could become dominant in Russian politics in the years ahead, with ominous implications for international stability.

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You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Halforche was one of the founders of the Geographical Associationwhich promotes the teaching of geography in schools.

Foreign policy complexity becomes simple minded strategic gaming. It was typical of the man that in the same year he organized and led an expedition to East Africawhere he made the first ascent of Mt. Ironically, the real reason behind goepolitics ability of the Heartland to resist attack also guarantees that it will never be able to live up to Mackinder’s forecast.

Halford Mackinder

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. This article or section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic. Inhe was the first Principal of University Extension College, Reading, a role he retained until he was mackinnder, inby William Macbride Childs. Sir Halford took Britain’s traditional fear of the dominance of the resources of continental Europe by one power and extended it to encompass the entire world.


He received halfford degree in biology in and one in mxckinder history the next year. Some analysts estimate that the fossil fuels in the region will transform it into a “new Saudi Arabia” in the coming decades.

He was a member of the Coefficients dining clubset up in by the Fabian campaigners Sidney and Beatrice Webbwhich brought together social reformers and advocates of national efficiency.

The Geographical Pivot of History – Wikipedia

Policy is driven by geopoliitics, both geopolitice and theoretical. When he turned to the study of history, he remarked that he was returning “to an old interest and took up modern history with the idea of seeing how the theory of evolution would appear in human development”. Wikisource has the text of a Encyclopedia Americana article about Halford Mackinder.

Geographical Journal, — Since it is not, we must constantly reevaluate our fundamental assumptions to see whether or not any “eternal” rules of the game, geopolitical and otherwise, truly exist.

The Geographical Pivot of History

Fettweis is a Ph. As Fareed Zakaria has noted, after the last two world wars, “America wanted to change the geopoolitics, and the world was reluctant. An apparent power vacuum within the region is once again the subject of rivalry from without, and a new “great game” an analogy to which we will return seems to be unfolding, with Russia, China, Iran, Turkey, and the United States as the players. The actual effect of his teachings upon German policy is open to debate–Haushofer may have had an enormous effect on Hitler through his pupil,[9] or he may have been “a neglected and slighted man who would certainly enjoy learning about the hullabaloo raised by his doctrine” in the United States.