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Putting the roots can be interpreted as follows: (i) if D > 0, then one root is real and two are complex conjugates. (ii) if D = 0, then all roots are real, and at least. Now use the two-dimensional Newton’s method to find the simultaneous solutions. Referenced on Wolfram|Alpha: Bairstow’s Method. CITE THIS AS. The following C program implements Bairstow’s method for determining the complex root of a Modification of Lin’s to Bairstow’s method */.

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In numerical analysisBairstow’s method is an efficient algorithm for finding the roots of a real polynomial of arbitrary degree.

The algorithm first appeared in the appendix of the book Applied Aerodynamics by Leonard Bairstow. See root-finding algorithm for other algorithms. The roots of the quadratic may then be determined, and the polynomial may be divided by the quadratic to eliminate those roots.

Bairstow’s method

This process is then iterated until the polynomial becomes quadratic or linear, and all the roots have been determined. Long division of the polynomial to be solved. They can be found recursively as bairsttow.


This method to find the zeroes of polynomials can thus be easily implemented with a programming language or even a spreadsheet. As first quadratic polynomial one may choose the normalized polynomial formed from the leading three coefficients of f x. The step length from the fourth iteration on demonstrates the superlinear speed of convergence.

Bairstow Method

Bairstow’s algorithm inherits the local quadratic convergence of Newton’s method, except in the case of quadratic factors of multiplicity higher than 1, bairsotw convergence to that factor is linear. A particular kind of instability is observed when the polynomial has odd degree and only one real root.

Quadratic factors that have a small value at this real root tend to diverge to infinity. Points are colored according to the final point of the Bairstow iteration, black points indicate divergent behavior.

The first image is a demonstration of the single real root case. The second indicates that one can remedy the divergent behavior by introducing an additional real root, at the cost of slowing down the speed of convergence. The third image corresponds to the example above.


Bairstow’s method – Wikipedia

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